Ducks, Geese & Swans Anatidae

Patos, ocas y CISNES anátidas

  • 158 especies en todo el mundo
  • DR personal total: 114 especies (72%), 83 fotos
Los Anátidas, una enorme familia que incluye patos, gansos y cisnes, están fuertemente relacionados con los hábitats acuáticos de todo el mundo. La familia varía mucho en tamaño, forma, color y comportamiento. cisne negro frecuencias (arriba; adultos con jóvenes) de los lagos abiertos de Australia. Merganser encapuchado (Hombre, izquierda) prefiere piscinas tranquilas y boscosas en América del Norte; rara vez sube su impresionante distintivo. Rebaños enormes de Oca de nieve y Gé Ross
migran de la tundra septentrional para hibernar juntos en lugares como el valle de California central. El ruido de un rebaño como este que se eleva (abajo) puede ser ensordecedor. Los intereses de caza han creado muchos de estos santuarios, pero ahora atraen las aves de corral para disfrutar del espectáculo.
Los patos tienen una amplia gama de estrategias de supervivencia. Algunas especies son mayoritariamente inactivas, tales como Oca pigmeo-africana los trópicos africanos (arriba). Otros, por ejemplo, son migrantes de vida relativamente corta Teal alado azul
en América del Norte (derecha). Otros son grandes inmigrantes de larga distancia. Un ejemplo es Smew, una pequeña mierda que se reproduce a la altura del Paleártico. Las especies con largas rutas migratorias se reunirán con barcos para disfrutar del mundo avícola. este hombre Smew
(Abajo) brevemente visto en pleno invierno a las ruinas de la cordillera de Sierra Nevada en California durante dos tiradas de invierno. En mi disparo, el Smew sólo atravesaba un trozo de agua con un impresionante reflejo al borde lejana.
Las aves acuáticas como familia son un concepto no controvertido, pero ha habido muchos debates sobre el asentamiento de subfamilias y tribus dentro de la familia, y sobre la relación de las anátidas con otras familias. El World Birds Handbook (Carboneras 1992) establece 3 subfamilias y 12 tribus, pero una de estas subfamilias es Magpie-Goose, que recientemente ha sido objeto de mucha autoridad (por ejemplo, Dickinson 2003) y que con él como familia independiente [Anserantidae].

Dickinson (2003) divide los Anátidas en cinco subfamilias:

  • Dendrocygninae [whistling-ducks; represented by Spotted Whistling-Duck, above left]
  • Anserinae [swans & most geese, Brant, above right]
  • Stictonettinae [Freckled Duck Stictonetta naevosa of inland south Australia; no photo]
  • Tadornina [shelducks, torrent ducks, aberrant geese, like Spur-winged Goose (right)]
  • anatina [puddle & diving ducks, eiders, scoters, stifftails & mergansers (Common Merganser with brood, below)

There are other arrangements, and the final word is likely not yet in on this topic.

In
many ducks there is strong sexual dimorphism, with males sporting
conspicuous and classic patterns most of the year (except for a brief
“eclipse” plumage during wing-molt) and females often dressed in
camouflage patterns. In many species males are promiscuous and do not
share any of the duties of raising young. “Rape” is a common behavior
in many of the “puddle ducks” (like Mallard Anas platyrhychos).

Here in North America we tend to divide our standard freshwater species into the ‘puddle ducks,’ such as Northern Shoveler (above) and the ‘diving ducks,’ like Ring-necked Duck
(below). These two groups forage in different ways, which makes ‘puddle
ducks’ common in shallow, weedy ponds with ‘diving ducks’ typically
restricted to deep-water venues. The Wood Duck
(right) is neither; it is a distinctive species on its own, breeding in
old woodpecker holes in dead trees in riparian areas, or in nest-boxes
now put up widely for its protection.

To
this point the photos have been mostly of freshwater ducks, but there
is an impressive selection of salt-water species. The scoters,
represented by Surf Scoter (above), are primarily mullusk-eaters. This young male has a large clam.

Harlequin Duck
(male & female, left) migrate substantial distances between
breeding and wintering grounds. Some nest along rushing mountain
streams, but they winter on salt water. Long-tailed Duck (imm. male, below) breeds even farther north in the Arctic tundra and may have the longest migration route of any duck.

Some
of all the most impressive waterfowl are the cascade specialists —
those ducks that spent their lives in and by rushing streams in the
Andes or Australasian mountains. Incredible swimmers with elongated
bodies and long maneuverable tails, somehow they are at home in the
swiftest of currents. I’ve been fortunate to observe all of them in
habitat. The Torrent Duck (left) is silhouetted
against the turbulent Urubamba River in the Peruvian Andes; a close-up
of the same shot (inset left) proves it to be a white-headed male.

The other cascade specialists are Blue Duck Hymenolaimus malacorhynchus of New Zealand and Salvadori’s Teal Salvadorina waigiuensis of New Guinea. I’ve had the good fortune to watch both working the rapids of roaring rivers in the mountains of those islands.

Because
many species of waterfowl are long distance migrants, there is the
possibility for vagrants. Usually one must go to the far north to see Steller’s Eider,
for example. This pair (above left) were flying past St. Lawrence
Island in the Bering Sea. That is a very special duck, but it is even
more dramatic when one appears far south, just as this imm. male (above
right) that appeared in the Crescent City harbor between Jan-May 1983
(this photo taken in pouring rain).

Vagrant
waterfowl present a variety of problems. First, one must evaluate
whether the bird is a wild vagrant or an escape for captivity; this Trumpeter Swan
in Texas (right) presented exactly that problem. Second, identification
of vagrants requires caution. Issues in identifying white swans in
North America have caused many problems; see Banko (1980), Bailey
(1991), and Patten & Heindel (1994). Other local California
problems have been addressed by such papers as Wallace & Ogilvie
(1985), Tobish (1986), Jackson (1992, 1993), or Martin & DiLabio
(1994). All these papers are much better resources that ‘standard’
family tomes (e.g., Palmer 1976 or Madge & Burn 1988) for
identifying vagrants.

Finally, issues of hybridization are legion. Gillham et al. (1966) & Gillham (1987) cover some of the many problems.

There are a set of waterfowl, usually placed right at the end of the family chronology, called stifftails. Ruddy Duck
(male with a brood behind; below left) can be brilliant in summer and
does impressive chin-bobbing displays in courtship. This species
cruises out into open water and is easy to view. In contrast, Masked Duck
of the Neotropics (below right) is a skulker, hiding in the reeds, and
can be difficult to locate (Lockwood 1997). This particular one,
though, was a vagrant to Florida at a locale where hiding spots were
limited.

Bibliographic essay:

Family Book:
Madge, Steve & Hilary Burn. 1988. Waterfowl: An identification guide to the Ducks, Geese and Swans of the World. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

This was one of the first “compact” family books which would set a
pattern to be followed by all too many of those that followed: sets of
color paintings together in the front with facing pages of brief text
and map, and then detailed species accounts forming the back half of
the book. The plates here are fairly nice and not so rigidly
“field-guide art” and some later examples, but still one gets little
sense of the habitat of each species in the artwork. The text is aimed
primarily at identification topics with sections on habitat,
distribution, and movements. This book — indeed, this type of book — is
okay for an introduction to the topics covered, but it is too small to
be thorough. I will still turn to the Birds of Western Palearctic series, or the relevant volumes of the unfinished Palmer’s Handbook of North American Birds,
for detailed plumage descriptions and molt schedules [and, since this
review was written back in 1999, I would not turn to the relevant
fascicle in the Birds of North America series]. Aunque se necesitan artículos de identificación detallados y bien ilustrados (con fotos, con suerte) para identificar la vagina. Por lo tanto, es difícil decidir exactamente como es un libro de Madge & Burn, excepto un resumen rápido y relativamente preciso del ave acuática del mundo.

Libro de familia:

Todd, Frank S. 1979. Patos, gansos y cisnes del mundo. Seaworld, San Diego.

Un tipo de libro diferente del de Madge & Burn, se trata de un libro de “mesa de café” con bellas fotografías y una introducción a la diversidad familiar. Sirve bien para estos propósitos. Las fotos son muy bonitas y han intentado cubrir todas las especies (incluso algunos ejemplares cuando esto era todo lo que hay). Un apéndice muy útil para las aves de corral que resume el estado de cada especie en cautiverio en América del Norte. Esto realmente ayuda a tener una idea de si el pato de orientación que ha encontrado podría ser un ladrón salvaje o simplemente escapar de una colección de capturas.

literatura citada:

Bailey, SF 1991. Personajes de Bill que separan Trumpeter y Tundra swan: una nota de advertencia. Aves de corral 23: 89-91.

Carboneras, C. 1992. Familia Anatidae (patos, gansos y cisnes), páginas 536 -630 dentro Manual Birds of the World (del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott y J. Sargatal, eds). Vol. 1. Lynx Ediciones, Barcelona, ​​España.

Banks, WE 1980. The Trumpeter Swan. Univ. de Nebraska Press, Lincoln.

Gillham, EH 1987. patos tufats a Royal Park. E. Gillham, Romney Marsh, Kent, Inglaterra. [An absolutely great bird on plumage variation,
hybridization, molt schedules, and biology of Tufted Duck. Because it
was published privately, it has been overlooked much too often.]

Gillham, EH, Harrison, JM y Harrison, JG 1966. Estudio de ciertos híbridos Aythya. Informe anual de Wild Bird Trust 17: 49-65. [The
absolutely classic work on this topic.]

Jackson, GD 1991. Identificación de campo de cerceta en América del Norte, fontaneros como mujeres. Parte I: ala azul verde, canela y ala verde. Aves de corral 24: 214-223.

Jackson, GD 1992. Identificación de campo de cerceta en América del Norte, fontaneros como mujeres. Parte II: Teal Garganey y Baikal. Aves de corral 24: 214-223.

Lockwood, MW 1997. Una mirada más cercana: pato enmascarado. Aves de corral 29: 386-390.

Martin, PR y BM DiLabio. 1994. Identifique híbridos Goldeneye Common X Barrow en el campo. Aves de corral 26: 104-105.

Palmer, RS, ed. 1976. Manual de las aves norteamericanas. Vuelos. 2 y 3. Yale Univ. Prensa, New Haven, CT.

Patten, MA y MT Heindel. 1994. Identificación de tramperos y cisnes de tundra. Aves de corral 26: 306-318.

Tobish, T. 1986. Separación de ganado de oro Barrow y Common en todas las ciruelas. Aves de corral 18: 17-27.

Wallace, DIM y MA Ogilvie. 1985. Títulos distinguidos de alas y canales azules, páginas 267-271 dentro Sharrock, JTR, ed. Límites de identificación de pájaros. British Birds, Ltd., Biggleswade, Reino Unido